Physical and Chemical Properties Resources

  • AHFS Drug Information Annually updated by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, AHFS (American Hospital Formulary Service) Drug Information is the only drug information reference compendium published by a non-profit scientific association.
  • ChemIDplus This database maintained by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides information on more than 390,000 chemicals, including synonyms and structures. Search by registry number, name, molecular formula, structure, physical and toxicological properties.
  • DrugBank This unique bioinformatics and chem-informatics resource combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information. The database contains 6811 drug entries including 1528 FDA-approved small molecule drugs, 150 FDA-approved biotech (protein/peptide) drugs, 87 nutraceuticals and 5080 experimental drugs and includes information on drug targets and drug-drug interactions. Maintained by Genome Alberta, Genome Canada, and GenomeQuest, Inc., an enterprise genomic information company serving the life science community.
  • Martin’s Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences: Physical Chemical and Biopharmaceutical Principles in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Reference book provides information on the application of the physical, chemical and biological principles in the pharmaceutical sciences, with content on drug delivery, solid oral dosage forms, pharmaceutical polymers and pharmaceutical biotechnology, and updated sections on nanotechnology.
  • The Merck Index Contains over 10,000 monographs with information relating to compounds of significance in research, commerce and environmental impact. Molecular weights have been recalculated with the latest IUPAC standards and there are revised periodic table and atomic weight tables. Made available by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
  • PubChem This National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) resource provides information on the biological activities of small molecules and a fast chemical structure similarity search tool.
  • USP-NF Online The USP-NF (United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary) Online contains standards for medicines, dosage forms, drug substances, excipients, biologics, compounded preparations, medical devices, dietary supplements, and other therapeutics manufactured and marketed in the United States. Its monographs provide specifications for identity, strength, quality, purity, packaging, and labeling for substances and dosage forms. There are currently five essential compounding General Chapters in the USP–NF (To search for chapters in USP-NF Online, select the Advanced Search option and then the Chapters tab.)
    • [chapter] <795> Pharmaceutical Compounding—Nonsterile Preparations
    • [chapter] <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations
    • [chapter] <1160> Pharmaceutical Calculations in Prescription Compounding
    • [chapter] <1163> Quality Assurance in Pharmaceutical Compounding
    • [chapter] <1176> Prescription Balances & Volumetric Apparatus
    Chapter <800> Hazardous Drugs - Handling in Healthcare Settings "was published on February 1, 2016 in the First Supplement to USP 39-NF 34. The USP Compounding Expert Committee approved a delayed official implementation date of July 1, 2018 to allow entities additional time to implement the standard. With the delayed official date, entities have more than two years to implement this new standard."
  • USP's Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) USP's FCC includes more than 1,200 ingredient-specific standards, including monographs, provisional monographs, and FCC identity standards. It also contains more than 150 General Tests and Assays, providing procedures frequently cited in ingredient-specific standards, sometimes with acceptance criteria, in order to avoid repetition of this text. Additionally, FCC includes a General Information section with up-to-date relevant informational materials on method validation and various analytical techniques, reference tables, information on current Good Manufacturing Practices, and a complete reprint of USP’s Food Fraud Database.

Compounding Reference Resources

Resources on Compounding Practices

  • Ansel’s Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems This edition includes updated drug information and has an increased focus on physical pharmacy. Coverage incorporates all new dosage forms on the market as well as those in the current US Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary.
  • The Art, Science and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding This e-book addresses all aspects of good manufacturing practices for compounded medications. The compounding of each dosage form, from powders and granules to injectables, is addressed, with additional chapters covering veterinary compounding, compounding for special populations, compounding for specific procedures, compounding for clinical studies, compounding cosmetics, compounding with hazardous drugs, and compounding in the event of a natural disaster or terrorist attack. Nine appendices provide essential information on the compounding process and examples of standard operating procedures.
  • A Practical Guide to Contemporary Pharmacy Practice This handbook details the steps of receiving the prescription, preparing it, and completing a compound. The book includes expanded information on sterile dosage forms and their preparation; medication errors; processing tools for improving compounded preparations and reducing errors; a new chapter on systems of measurement and basic pharmaceutical calculations; and a new section on veterinary pharmacy practice. Patient cases with the sample compounded prescription orders and parenteral preparation medication orders show typical situations and problem-solving to meet special therapy and patient needs.

Secondary Literature

  • International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) indexes unique content from 850 specialty pharmacy journals dating from 1970 through the present and includes citations from all state pharmacy journals and presentation abstracts from major pharmacy meetings. Produced in cooperation with the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP).
  • PubMed This index, maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), contains more than 24 million article citations from over 5,500 biomedical journals and links out to full text articles when available on other sites. Click the ACP Library blue button on citation-level pages to link to full text articles in ACP's Full Text E-Library or request items via interlibrary loan. PubMed includes the MEDLINE® index, in addition to indexing other life sciences journals and books.

Primary Literature

  • Conway JM, Brown MC. A Flowchart for Selecting an Ointment Base. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(1):16. doi:10.5688/ajpe78116.
  • American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) (articles from 2002-present) AJHP, with full text articles available through EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete, periodically publishes new formulations with stability data.
  • International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding (IJPC) (articles from 1997-present) The IJPC includes peer-reviewed scientific articles, articles on pertinent topics, informational and professional articles, calculations, and other departments relevant to the practice of compounding. Articles and manuscripts are reviewed by pharmacy practitioners, academicians and scientists, as well as by others with expertise in various specialties. The editor-in-chief is Loyd V. Allen, Jr. To search issues from 1997-present, click on Store in the taskbar.
*Click on View to open an article in PDF. Clicking on a hyperlinked article title will prompt for payment.*

Print Materials

  • Allen's Compounded Formulations Published in 2003, this print volume presents 168 of Loyd V. Allen Jr.'s "Contemporary Compounding" columns reprinted from U.S. Pharmacist, organized by therapeutic category. The basic formulas offered in this collection provide for some uniformity of preparation, as well as a starting point for further modification for specific patients.An introduction to good compounding practices, tables presenting equivalent values for compounding calculations, a directory of suppliers of compounding chemicals, a glossary of terms, and a dosage form index and drug index supplement the columns. Call number: QV 778 A427 2003, Main Collection
  • Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients More than 350 monographs state the physical properties of excipients and information on their safe use and potential toxicity. Monographs include: pharmacopoeial information from the United Kingdom, Europe, Japan and the United States where relevant; non-proprietary names and synonyms; chemical name, CAS Registry number, empirical formula, molecular weight; functional category, applications and incompatibilities; material description and typical properties; safety, stability, storage and handling information; and method of manufacture. All monographs are thoroughly cross-referenced and indexed to allow their identification by chemical, non-proprietary or trade names. Call number: QV 735 H236 2012, multiple copies.
  • Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference Also searchable as a database within MicroMedex® Solutions, Martindale's contains over 6000 monographs, including 200 new monographs, on drugs and ancillary substances such as herbals, pharmaceutical excipients, and toxins and poisons. There are over 180,000 preparations giving details of preparation name, manufacturer, ingredients, and uses for proprietary preparations and now covering over 40 countries and regions, including China. The content is evidence-based and extensively referenced with links to the published literature. Call number: QC 738.1 M3, multiple editions.
  • Pediatric Drug Formulations Contains more than 360 extemporaneous formulations for pediatric patients, for both parenteral and oral use, with documented stability data. Copy available for checkout in the Main Collection, Call Number: QV 735 N14p 2011.
  • Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy This reference material covers the entire scope of pharmacy education from the history of pharmacy and ethics to the particulars of industrial pharmacy and pharmacy practice. (A very limited preview of the 21st edition of Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy is available through Google Books Multiple print editions are available in the library, Call number: QV 704 R388.)
  • Trissel's Stability of Compounded Formulations This compilation provides all currently available stability information on drugs in compounded oral, enteral, topical, ophthalmic, and other specialized preparations. Based on data published over the past 55 years, the reference summarizes specific formulations and stability studies. It helps readers (a) determine whether formulated compounds will be stable for the anticipated duration of use, (b) properly store and repackage compounded formulations, (c) formulate in accordance with documented standards, and (d) counsel patients on the use and storage of compounded medications.
    Monographs are available on 510 products, including 77 new monographs and 433 updated from the previous edition arranged alphabetically by non-proprietary name. Call number: QV 735 T837t

Web Sites

  • ASHP's Sterile Compounding Resource Center The American Society of Health-System Pharmacist's resource center on sterile compounding.
  • Inactive Ingredient Database This FDA database provides information on inactive ingredients present in FDA-approved drug products. This information can be used by industry as an aid in developing drug products. For new drug development purposes, once an inactive ingredient has appeared in an approved drug product for a particular route of administration, the inactive ingredient is not considered new and may require a less extensive review the next time it is included in a new drug product. Database is updated quarterly.
  • International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists (IACP) This association represents more than 3,600 pharmacists, technicians, students, and members of the compounding community who focus upon the specialty practice of pharmacy compounding.
  • Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board PCAB Accreditation gives patients, prescribers and payers a way to select a pharmacy that meets or exceeds USP’s high quality standards.
  • Pharmacy Compounding Resource Center Check the FDA's resource center for news, updates, regulatory and policy information, and other resources on compounding for health care providers and consumers
  • PharmacyTimes® Compounding Hotline A monthly Q&A column published in the magazine Pharmacy Times®.
  • Professional Compounding Centers of America (PCCA) PCCA’s mission is to strengthen the role, position and skills of its member compounding pharmacists.
  • USP Compounding Standards & Resources Selective chapters from the more complete USP-NF (link under first section) with standards on compounding to help compounding practitioners adhere to widely acknowledged, scientifically sound procedures and practices, and facilitate the delivery of consistent and good-quality prepared medicines to patients.

Legislative Information

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Rev. 05/18